Under his leadership, the Institute added a child development clinic, nursery school classrooms, and a research lab. They created a three-stage model of development e. Bijou and Baer looked at these socially determined stages, as opposed to organizing behavior into change points or cusps behavioral cusp.
Be able to identify and describe the main areas of cognitive development. Be able to describe major theories of cognitive development and what distinguishes them.
Understand how nature and nurture work together to produce cognitive development. Understand why cognitive development is sometimes viewed as discontinuous and sometimes as continuous. Know some ways in which research on cognitive development is being used to improve education. Introduction By the time you reach adulthood you have learned a few things about how the world works.
People accumulate all this useful knowledge through the process of cognitive development, which involves a multitude of factors, both inherent and learned. Cognitive development in childhood is about change. One Laptop per Child, https: Defining thinking can be problematic, because no clear boundaries separate thinking from other mental activities.
Thinking obviously involves the higher mental processes: However, thinking also involves other mental processes that seem more basic and at which even toddlers are skilled—such as perceiving objects and events in the environment, acting skillfully on objects to obtain goals, and understanding and producing language.
As the name suggests, cognitive development is about change. To find out, she brought an unusually even-tempered cat named Maynard to a psychology laboratory and allowed the 3- to 6-year-old participants in the study to pet and play with him. There are several main types of theories of child development.
Information processing theoriessuch as that of David Klahr, examine the mental processes that produce thinking at any one time and the transition processes that lead to growth in that thinking. At the heart of all of these theories, and indeed of all research on cognitive development, are two main questions: In the remainder of this module, we examine the answers that are emerging regarding these questions, as well as ways in which cognitive developmental research is being used to improve education.
Nature and Nurture The most basic question about child development is how nature and nurture together shape development. Nature refers to our biological endowment, the genes we receive from our parents.
Nurture refers to the environments, social as well as physical, that influence our development, everything from the womb in which we develop before birth to the homes in which we grow up, the schools we attend, and the many people with whom we interact.
The nature-nurture issue is often presented as an either-or question: Is our intelligence for example due to our genes or to the environments in which we live? In fact, however, every aspect of development is produced by the interaction of genes and environment.
At the most basic level, without genes, there would be no child, and without an environment to provide nurture, there also would be no child. The way in which nature and nurture work together can be seen in findings on visual development. Many people view vision as something that people either are born with or that is purely a matter of biological maturation, but it also depends on the right kind of experience at the right time.
For example, development of depth perceptionthe ability to actively perceive the distance from oneself to objects in the environment, depends on seeing patterned light and having normal brain activity in response to the patterned light, in infancy Held, If no patterned light is received, for example when a baby has severe cataracts or blindness that is not surgically corrected until later in development, depth perception remains abnormal even after the surgery.
A child that is perceived to be attractive and calm may receive a different sort of care and attention from adults and as a result enjoy a developmental advantage. Also contributing to the complex interplay of nature and nurture is the role of children in shaping their own cognitive development.
From the first days out of the womb, children actively choose to attend more to some things and less to others. When children are young, their parents largely determine their experiences: In contrast, older children and adolescents choose their environments to a larger degree.
Thus, the issue is not whether cognitive development is a product of nature or nurture; rather, the issue is how nature and nurture work together to produce cognitive development.
Some aspects of the development of living organisms, such as the growth of the width of a pine tree, involve quantitative changeswith the tree getting a little wider each year. Other changes, such as the life cycle of a ladybug, involve qualitative changeswith the creature becoming a totally different type of entity after a transition than before Figure 1.
Continuous and discontinuous development.
Some researchers see development as a continuous gradual process, much like a maple tree growing steadily in height and cross-sectional area. Other researchers see development as a progression of discontinuous stages, involving rapid discontinuous changes, such as those in the life cycle of a ladybug, separated by longer periods of slow, gradual change.
The four stages that Piaget hypothesized were the sensorimotor stage birth to 2 yearsthe preoperational reasoning stage 2 to 6 or 7 yearsthe concrete operational reasoning stage 6 or 7 to 11 or 12 yearsand the formal operational reasoning stage 11 or 12 years and throughout the rest of life.Major Child Development Theories and Theorists Angela Oswalt, MSW Though many scientists and researchers have approached the study of child development over the last hundred or so years, only a few of the theories that have resulted have stood the test of time and have proven to be widely influential.
His theory of four stages of cognitive development, first presented in the midth century, is one of the most famous and widely-accepted theories in child cognitive development to this day. Jean Piaget: Piaget’s theory of child development is still one of the most widely accepted in modern psychology.
Analysis of Child Development Research with Intervention or Policy Implications: The Effect of Foster Care on a Child’s Cognitive and Behavioral Abilities PAPER ONE: Cognitive, educational and self-support outcomes of long-term foster care versus adoption.
A Swedish national cohort study The purpose of the study was to compare the outcomes of youth in long-term foster care with a group of.
The Association for Behavior Analysis International has a special interest group for the behavior analysis of child development. Doctoral level behavior analysts who are psychologists belong to American Psychological Association's division behavior analysis. The World Association for Behavior Analysis has a certification in behavior therapy.
Through the process of observing and analyzing the drawings of young children, insights can be gained as to the social/emotional, physical, and intellectual development of each child. Children usually explore the world around them through intellectual, physical and emotional methods for young children; pencil, brush and paper are the best means.
A child with a disorganized attachment style seems to have no consistent way of coping with the stress of the strange situation—the child may cry during the separation but avoid the mother when she returns, or the child may approach the mother but then freeze or fall to the floor.