Article Types Subject coverage With 12 issues per year, Measurement Science and Technology publishes articles on new measurement techniques and associated instrumentation. Papers that describe experiments must represent an advance in measurement science or measurement technique rather than the application of established experimental technique. Bearing in mind the multidisciplinary nature of the journal, authors must provide an introduction to their work that makes clear the novelty, significance, broader relevance of their work in a measurement context and relevance to the readership of Measurement Science and Technology.
View abstract View article PDF Globally, the demand for improved health care delivery while managing escalating costs is a major challenge. Measuring the biomagnetic fields that emanate from the human brain already impacts the treatment of epilepsy, brain tumours and other brain disorders.
This roadmap explores how superconducting technologies are poised to impact health care. Biomagnetism is the study of magnetic fields of biological origin. Biomagnetic fields are typically very weak, often in the femtotesla range, making their measurement challenging.
The earliest in vivo human measurements were made with room-temperature coils. InBaule and McFee Am. Subsequently, inCohen et al Appl. These last two papers set the scene for applications of SQUIDs in biomagnetism, the subject of this roadmap. Here, h is the Planck constant and e the elementary charge.
The second property is the Josephson effect, predicted in by Josephson Phys. The Josephson junction consists of two weakly coupled superconductors separated by a tunnel barrier or other weak link.
A tiny electric current is able to flow between the superconductors as a supercurrent, without developing a voltage across them. InJaklevic et al Phys.
The essential property of the SQUID is that a steady increase in the magnetic flux threading the loop causes the critical current to oscillate with a period of one flux quantum. The roadmap begins chapter 1 with a brief review of the state-of-the-art of SQUID-based magnetometers and gradiometers for biomagnetic measurements.
The authors describe a pathway to achieve an intrinsic magnetic field noise as low as 0.
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|Search form||Overview Modern philosophical discussions about measurement—spanning from the late nineteenth century to the present day—may be divided into several strands of scholarship. These strands reflect different perspectives on the nature of measurement and the conditions that make measurement possible and reliable.|
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They also descibe a technology to defeat dewar noise. Chapter 2 reviews the neuroscientific and clinical use of magnetoencephalography MEGby far the most widespread application of biomagnetism with systems containing typically sensors cooled to liquid-helium temperature, 4. Reducing the sensor-to-brain separation and the system noise level would both improve spatial resolution.
The very recent commercial innovation that replaces the need for frequent manual transfer of liquid helium with an automated system that collects and liquefies the gas and transfers the liquid to the dewar will make MEG systems more accessible.
A highly promising means of placing the sensors substantially closer to the scalp for MEG is to use high-transition-temperature high- T c SQUID sensors and flux transformers chapter 3. Operation of these devices at liquid-nitrogen temperature, 77 K, enables one to minimize or even omit metallic thermal insulation between the sensors and the dewar.
The dewars can be made relatively flexible, and thus able to be placed close to the skull irrespective of the size of the head, potentially providing higher spatial resolution than liquid-helium based systems. The successful realization of a commercial high- T c MEG system would have a major commercial impact.
Realistic solutions to this problem are proposed, including implementing sensors with a noise level of 0. A prototype system is described.
Currently available neuronal imaging techniques include MEG, which is fast but has relatively poor spatial resolution, perhaps 10 mm, and functional MRI fMRI which has a millimeter resolution but is slow, on the order of seconds, and furthermore does not directly measure neuronal signals.
In essence, the magnetic fields generated by neural currents shift the frequency of the magnetic resonance signal at a location that is imaged by the three-dimensional magnetic field gradients that form the basis of MRI.
The currently achieved sensitivity of NCI is not quite sufficient to realize its goal, but it is close. The realization of NCI would represent a revolution in functional brain imaging.
Improved techniques for immunoassay are always being sought, and chapter 7 introduces an entirely new topic, magnetic nanoparticles for immunoassay. These particles are bio-funtionalized, for example with a specific antibody which binds to its corresponding antigen, if it is present.
For liquid-phase detection, there are three basic methods: AC susceptibility, magnetic relaxation and remanence measurement. These methods, which have been successfully implemented for both in vivo and ex vivo applications, are highly sensitive and, although further development is required, it appears highly likely that at least some of them will be commercialized.
Chapter 8 concludes the roadmap with an assessment of the commercial market for MEG systems. Despite the huge advances that have been realized since MEG was first introduced, the number of commercial systems deployed around the world remains small, around units employing about 50 SQUIDs.In the northern constellation of Coma Berenices (Berenice’s Hair) lies the impressive Coma Cluster — a structure of over a thousand galaxies bound together by gravity.
Measurement is a cornerstone of trade, science, technology, and quantitative research in many disciplines. Historically, many measurement systems existed for the varied fields of human existence to facilitate comparisons in these fields.
Top stories featured on ScienceDaily's Space & Time, Matter & Energy, and Computers & Math sections. "The Metrics of Science and Technology, addresses the challenge of measuring S&T, with a strong handle on the S&T metric literature and an eye for examining S&T in the context of the overall innovation process."-Journal of Technology Transfer.
Schumpter's concept of “creative destruction” reflects how technological innovation plays a key role in a dynamic economy. Questions remain, though, about how to measure the scientific versus the economic impact of a technology.
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