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Experimental studies[ edit ] Classical methods and results[ edit ] Although other fields have studied obedience, social psychology has been primarily responsible for the advancement of research on obedience. It has been studied experimentally in several different ways.
Milgram's experiment[ edit ] In one classical study, Stanley Milgram as part of the Milgram experiment created a highly controversial yet often replicated study.
Like many other experiments in psychology, Milgram's setup involved deception of the participants. In the experiment, subjects were told they were going to take part in a study of the effects of punishment on learning.
In reality, the experiment focuses on people's willingness to obey malevolent authority. Each subject served as a teacher of associations between arbitrary pairs of words. After meeting the "teacher" at the beginning of the experiment, the "learner" an accomplice of the experimenter sat in another room and could be heard, but not seen.
Teachers were told to give the "learner" electric shocks of increasing severity for each wrong answer. If subjects questioned the procedure, the "researcher" again, an accomplice of Milgram would encourage them to continue. Subjects were told to ignore the agonized screams of the learner, his desire to be untied and stop the experiment, and his pleas that his life was at risk and that he suffered from a heart condition.
The experiment, the "researcher" insisted, had to go on. The dependent variable in this experiment was the voltage amount of shocks administered.
Phillip Zimbardo was the main psychologist responsible for the experiment. In the Stanford Prison Experimentcollege age students were put into a pseudo prison environment in order to study the impacts of "social forces" on participants behavior.
The experimental setting was made to physically resemble a prison while simultaneously inducing "a psychological state of imprisonment".
With encouragement from a perceived authority figure, about two-thirds of the participants were willing to administer the highest level of shock to the learner. This result was surprising to Milgram because he thought that "subjects have learned from childhood that it is a fundamental breach of moral conduct to hurt another person against his will".
Prisoners likewise were hostile to and resented their guards. The cruelty of the "guards" and the consequent stress of the "prisoners," forced Zimbardo to terminate the experiment prematurely, after 6 days.
Milgram's study in particular generated a large response from the psychology community. In a modern study, Jerry Burger replicated Milgram's method with a few alterations.
Burger's method was identical to Milgram's except when the shocks reached volts, participants decided whether or not they wanted to continue and then the experiment ended base condition.
To ensure the safety of the participants, Burger added a two-step screening process; this was to rule out any participants that may react negatively to the experiment.
In the modeled refusal condition, two confederates were used, where one confederate acted as the learner and the other was the teacher. The teacher stopped after going up to 90 volts, and the participant was asked to continue where the confederate left off.
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This methodology was considered more ethical because many of the adverse psychological effects seen in previous studies' participants occurred after moving past volts. Additionally, since Milgram's study only used men, Burger tried to determine if there were differences between genders in his study and randomly assigned equal numbers of men and women to the experimental conditions.
Participants' comments from the previous study were coded for the number of times they mentioned "personal responsibility and the learner's well being". Another study that used a partial replication of Milgram's work changed the experimental setting. In one of the Utrecht University studies on obedience, participants were instructed to make a confederate who was taking an employment test feel uncomfortable.
Participants were told to make all of the instructed stress remarks to the confederate that ultimately made him fail in the experimental condition, but in the control condition they were not told to make stressful remarks.Having previously established that lonely people suffer from higher mortality than people who are not lonely, researchers are now trying to determine whether that risk is a result of reduced social resources, such as physical or economic assistance, or is due to the biological impact of social isolation on the functioning of the human body” (UCLA News Release, September 13, ).
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